The French and Indian War 1753 to 1765
1534 – On the Twenty-fourth day of July, in 1534, the colony of New France, was established by the French , in Canada.
1681 – On the Fourth day of March, in 1681, King Charles II grants William Penn a royal charter to established the Province of Pennsylvania.
1689 – In 1689 to 1697, the War of League of Augsburg, known in North America as King William War, which takes place and is considered the first of the French and Indian Wars.
1702 – From 1702 to 1713, the War of Spanish Succession, known in North America as Queen Anne’s War, takes place and is considered the second of the French and Indian Wars.
1713 – On the Eleventh day of April, in 1713, the treaty of Utrecht was signed, which brought the War of the Spanish Succession to an end.
1713 – On the Second day of September, in 1713, the French claimed the land, where they would build the Town of Louisbourg, Canada, in Nova Scotia.
1734 – The French established Fort Saint Frederic at Crown Point, on Lake Champlain.
1739 – The War of Jenkin’s Ear, which later merged into the War of Austrian Succession, took place, which ended in about 1748.
1744 – The War of Austrian Succession, was known as King Georges War, in North America. It was considered the third war of the French and Indian Wars. The War goes on through 1748.
1748 – On the Eighteenth day of October, in 1748, the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle brings the War of the Austrian Succession to the end.
1749 – On the Nineteenth day of May, in 1749, King George II of England granted the Ohio Company, a charter of several hundred thousand acres of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
1749 – The Celeron de Bienville’s Expedition into the Ohio River Valley took place in the summer, of 1749.
1749 – On the Twenty-first day of June, in 1749, the British established the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Canada.
1752 – On the Twenty-first day of June, in 1752, the French and their Native American allies attack the Town of Pickawillany, in Ohio and its inhabitants. They took five British traders prisoner and they killed the Piankashaw Chieftain La Demoiselle, also, known as Memeskia.
1752 – In July, of 1752, Michel-Ange Dequesne de Menneville arrived as governor of New France.
1753 – George Washington Travels to Fort LeBoeuf to deliver a message asking the French to leave the Ohio River Valley. He returns to Williamsburg, Virginia, with the French reply. They refused to leave
1754 – George Washington and 160 soldiers from the Virginia Regiment were sent to reinforce Fort Prince George near, what is now Pitsburg or Pittsburg, Darke County, in the State of Ohio.
1754 – In the Spring, the French built Fort Duquene at the Forks of the Ohio, where the Allegheny and the Monongahela Rivers meet. At the end of May, in the same year, Lieutenant Colonel Washington is involved in a skirmish with the French, during which the first shots of the French and Indian War were fired. Washington and his troops built Fort Necessity at Great Meadows, in Pennsylvania. In July, the French attacked at Fort Necessity and forced Washington to surrender. It was the only time in his life that Washington surrendered his army. Shortly afterward, Washington resigned from the military rather than accept a lower rank.
1754 – On the Twenty-eighth day of May, in 1754, the Battle of Jumonville Glen, which is the opening battle of the war, took place near what is now Hopwood, Fayette County, in the State of Pennsylvania. French Canadian Commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville was killed during the battle.
1754 – On the Tenth day of July, in 1754 the Albany plan was introduced to the British Colonies in North American. Benjamin Franklin proposed a single government for the colonies, and the entire country, eventually.
1754 – On the Nineteenth day of June, in 1754, the Albany Congress began in Albany, Albany County, in the State of New York.
1754 – On the Third day of June, in 1754, the Battle of Fort Necessity takes place near what is now Farmington, Pennsylvania.
1754 – On the Fourth day of July, in 1754, George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity, after losing nearly one third of his troops.
1754 – In October of 1754, George Washington resigned his Virginia command and returned to his civilian life, as a planter.
1755 – George Washington volunteers to serve as a aide to British General Edward Braddock. Braddock traveled to America to force the French from the Ohio River Valley. Though the campaign failed, Washington survived and was hailed as a hero. At the Battle of Monongahela, Washington had four bullets shot through his coat and yet he was not hurt. With so many officers injured during the battle, Washington was instrumental in carrying out Braddock’s order of retreat. Shortly afterward, Washington is put in charge of Virginia’s forces trying to defend the Virginia Frontier from the raiding French and Indians.
1755 – In June of 1755, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil arrived in North America, to take his post as governor of New France
1755 – In June of 1755, the British seized Acadia, which is now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, in Canada, from the French.
1755 – On the Third day of June, in 1755 the Battle of Fort Beausejour took place in near what is now Sackville, New Brunswick, in Canada.
1755 – On the Ninth day of June, in 1755, British Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen captured two French ships. They were the Alcide and the Lys, in a naval battle, off the coast of Newfoundland.
1755 – On the Ninth day of July, in 1755, British General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded and his force of British Regulars and provincial troops were defeated, at the Battle of the Wilderness, which was also, known as the Battle of the Monongahela.
1755 – On the Tenth day of August, in 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians began. This was also, called the Great Upheaval or the Great Deportation. The Acadians were people who were descendants of French colonists and indigenous people. The British forcibly removed and deported the Acadian people from the colony of Acadia. This area is what is now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The Acadians were able to take no belongings. Their homes and belongings were either burned or taken. Thousands of the Acadians died.
1755 – On the Eighth day of September, in 1755, William Johnson, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies, defeated the British at the Battle of Lake George. But British resistance prevented his advancing to Crown Point at the southern tip of Lake Champlain, as planned. What he does was build Fort William Henry at the southern tip of Lake George. The Mohawks abandoned their alliance with the British after the battle, the other nations within the Iroquois League adopted an informal position of neutrality.
1756 – On the Sixteenth day of January, in 1756, Great Britain and Prussia signed the Treaty of Westminster, a treaty of neutrality for Prussia and Great Britain, that promised to preserve peace in Germany, during the duration of war by preventing the passage of troops, through another country.
1756 – On the Twenty-seventh day of March, in 1756, the Battle of Fort Bull took place, at what is now Rome, Oneida County, in the State of New York.
1756 – In April, of 1756, the Battle of Trough took place, in what is now the State of West Virginia.
1756 – On the Second day of April, in 1756, the Battle of Sideling Hill took place in the State of Pennsylvania.
1756 – On the Eighteenth day of April, in 1756, the Battle of Great Cacapon, took place in what is now, Mercer County, in the State of West Virginia. The Battle of Great Cacapon was also, known as the Battle of Mercer County and the Battle of Fort McCord.
1756 – On the First day of May, in 1756, France, Austria and Sweden signed the First Treaty of Versailles, which was an alliance between the countries that promised mutual military support and assistance, if either country was attacked by Great Britain or Prussia.
1756 – On the Eighth day of May, in 1756, Britain and France declared was against one another. According to existing treaties of alliance, Prussia the entered a war on the British side. Austria, Sweden and Russia allied with France. This conflict was know as the Seven Years’ War.
1756 – On the Eighth day of May, in 1756, there was a raid on the British at Lunenburg, in Nova Scotia, by Native American fighters.
1756 – On the Twelfth day of May, in 1756, French Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm finally arrived at Quebec, in Canada.
1756 – On the Seventeenth day of May, in 1756, Great Britain officially declared war of France, which began the Seven Years War, in Europe.
1756 – On the Twentieth day of May, in 1756, the Battle of Minorca was the opening battle of the Seven Years War. It was a naval battle, as the British and the French each had twelve ships. The battle was fought off the coast of Spain. The French commander was Marquis de la Galissonniere, while the British ships were commanded by John Byng. The victory went to the French.
1756 – On the Twentieth day of June, in 1756, the Nawab of Bengal, Suraj Ud Dowla, captured in India and reportedly confined British prisoners in the “Black Hole of Calcutta”.
1756 – On the Tenth day of August, in 1756, the Battle of Fort Oswego, took place in what is now the City of Oswego, Oswego County, in the State of New York. The battle went on through the fourteenth day of August in 1756.
1756 – On the Fourteenth day of August, in 1756, French forced under Marquis de Montcalm, commander of the French forces in North America, captured Fort Oswego, which helped the French in the Great Lakes area.
1756 – On the Twenty-ninth day of August, in 1756, the Prussians invaded Saxony, continuing the Seven Years War.
1757 – On the Twenty-first day of January, in 1757, the first Battle on Snowshoes took place near Fort Carillon, in what is now Fort Ticonderoga, near the City of Ticonderoga, Essex County, in the State of New York.
1757 – On the Twenty-ninth day of June, in 1757, William Pitt was named the British Secretary of State. He allocated the resources to defeat the French and raised 23,000 troops in North America, in 1758, and said Parliament would cover all expenses.
1757 – On the Twenty-third day of July, in 1757, the Battle of Sabbath Day Point took place in the Town of Lake George, Warren County, in the State of New York. The Battle of Sabbath Day Point was also, known as the Lake George Massacre. the battle ended in a French victory.
1757 – On the Third day of August, in 1757, the Siege of Fort William Henry, took place, near the Town of Lake George, in Warren County, in the State of New York. The siege went on through the Ninth day of August, in 1757.
1757 – On the Ninth day of August in 1757, French General Montcalm force the British to give up Fort William Henry, after six days of siege. After leaving the fort, more than 150 troops and civilians were killed and 500 taken captive and held for ransom.
1757 – On the Twelfth day of November, in 1757, the attack on German Flatts, at what is now the Town of Herkimer, Herkimer County, in the State of New York.
1757 – On the First day of December, in 1757, British Major General James Abercromby was promoted, to the Commander in Chief of North America.
1757 – On the Eighth day of December, in 1757, the Battle of Bloody Creek took place at what is now Carleton Corner, Nova Scotia, in Canada.
1758 – On the Thirteenth day of March, in 1758, the Second Battle on Snowshoes, took place near the Town of Lake George, Warren County, in the State of New York.
1758 – On the Eighth day of June, in 1758, the Siege of Louisbourg began in Nova Scotia, Canada.
1758 – On the Eighth day of July, in 1758, the British were defeated at Fort Carrillon, on Lake Champlain, Essex County, in the State of New York, although they outnumbered the French by four to one, the British suffered almost 2,000 casualties.
1758 – On the Twenty-sixth day of July, in 1758, the British captured Louisburg, a French Port on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, in Canada. With the victory, the British was able to restrict French supplies flowing down the Saint Lawrence River. The battle lasted three days.
1758 – On the Twenty-seventh day of August, in 1758, the British capture Fort Frontenac, at what is now Kingston, on Lake Ontario, which further disrupted French supply line, to its interior ports.
1758 – On the Fourteenth day of September in 1758, the Battle of Fort Duquesne took place at what is now Pittsburg, Allegheny County, in the State of Pennsylvania.
1758 – On the Twelfth day of October, in 1785, the Battle of Fort Ligonier took place, in what is now Ligonier, Westmoreland County, in the State of Pennsylvania.
1758 – On the Twenty-first day of October, in 1758, the Treaty of Easton was signed by the British and several Native American Nations. In return for the peace, the British promise to renegotiate the Walking Purchase of 1737, when the Iroquois gave away Delaware lands in western Pennsylvania, to the British. The British also, promise to build a trading post at the Forks of the Ohio River and to prohibit white settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains.
1758 – On the Twenty-third day of November, in 1758, the French destroy Fort Duquesne. The French realized that the fort would be overrun by British Brigadier General John Forbes force of 5,000 troops.
1758 – In December, George Washington resigned his commission, in the Virginia Regiment.
1759 – On the Twenty-fifth day of July, in 1759, British forces under General John Prideaux captured Fort Niagara, severing contact between garrisons in eastern Canada and their posts south of Lake Erie.
1759 – On the Seventh day of March, in 1759, the final Battle on Snowshoes, across from Fort Carillonin, in New York.
1759 – On the Sixth day of July, in 1759, the Battle of Fort Niagara took place, near what is now Youngstown, Niagara County, in the State of New York. The battle lasted on and off for twenty days.
1759 – On the Twenty-fourth day of July, in 1759, the Battle of La Belle Famille took place near Fort Niagara, in the State of New York.
1759 – On the Twenty-sixth day of July, in 1759, the French leave Fort Carrillon, when it is besieged by British General Jeffery Amherst. As they retreat, the French destroy their fort at Crown Point. The British, then control Lake Champlain and the Hudson River. They rebuild Fort Carrillon and rename it Fort Ticonderoga. This was a two day battle.
1759 – On the Thirty-first day of July, in 1759, the Battle of Beauport took place near Beauport, Quebec City, in Canada. The Battle of Beauport was also, known as the Battle of Montmorency.
1759 – On the Thirteenth day of September, in 1759, General James Wolfe lands a force of British troops above Quebec and attack the city, across the Plains of Abraham. In the battle, the British suffer 700 casualties, the French 1,800. General Wolfe was killed in the battle.
1759 – On the Eighteenth day of September, in 1759, the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were signed.
1759 – On the Fourth day of October, in 1759, Major Robert Roger’s Ranger’s held a raid at St Francis, near the southern shore of the Saint Lawrence River, in Canada.
1759 – In the Fall of 1759, some Cherokee chiefs traveled from Tellico, in what is now the state of Tennessee, to South Carolina to negotiate with the governor, but they were kept as hostages and brought to Fort Prince George, in South Carolina.
1760 – In February of 1760 the Siege of Fort Loudon took place, in what is now the Little Tennessee River, in the State of Tennessee. The siege went on until the Ninth day of August, in 1760. The British and colonial soldiers were commanded by Captain Paul Demere’. The Cherokee warriors were led by Ostenaco.
1760 – On the Sixteenth day of February, in 1760, Cherokee warriors attacked Fort Prince George, in South Carolina, in an attempt to free the hostages. The British forces thwart the attack and kill the chiefs.
1760 – On the Twenty-eighth day of April, in 1760, the Battle of Saint-Foy took place, in Quebec, Canada. The Battle was also, known as the Battle of Quebec. It was a victory for the French.
1760 – On the Twenty-eighth day of June, in 1760, the Battle of Restigouche was a naval battle fought on the Restigouche River, in Quebec, Canada. The battle consisted on the British Royal Navy and a small group of ships from the French Navy, Acadian Militia and Mi’knaq Militia. The battle went on through the Eighth day of July, in 1760.
1760 – On the Eighth day of September, in 1760, Governor-General Vaudreuil of New France surrenders Montreal, the last French stronghold in North America. without a battle, when the British army of 17,500 British regulars, American troops and Native Americans flood into the city, from all directions.
1760 – On the Sixteenth day of August, in 1760, the Battle of Thousand Islands was fought in the upper St. Lawrence River. The battle went on through the Twenty-fourth day of August, in 1760, at the Canada and what is now the United States border.
1760 – On the Twenty-fifth day of October, in 1760, King George the II, of Great Britain died. George the III, became King.
1761 – On the Twenty-third day of September, in 1761, the Cherokee signed a peace treaty with the British, which brought the Anglo Cherokee War to an end. It ran from 1759 to 1761.
1762 – On the Twenty-seventh day of June, in 1762, the French under Comte d’Haussonville forced the British to give up, St. John’s, under order from Chevalier de Ternay.
1762 – on the Fifteenth day of September, in 1762, the Battle of Signal Hill took place, at St John’s, in Newfoundland, Canada. The British Commander was Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst. He and the British troops recaptured St. Johns, which the French had seized earlier.
1763 – On the Tenth day of February, in 1763, the Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War. The English drove the French from North America. William Pitt was a critic it. France gave up all except New Orleans. Canada was given to Great Britain. Florida goes to Britain. Cuba goes to Spain.
1763 – On the Seventh day of May, in 1763, the Pontiac’s War began, which was a conflict between Great Britain and a confederation of Native American tribes, who were unhappy with British post war policies, in the Great Lakes area, after the French and Indian War.
1763 – On the Seventh day of October, in 1763, the Proclamation of 1763, King George III, banned the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. That was a problem, partly because some colonists and settlements were already there.
1763 – On the Ninth day of May, in 1763, a coalition of Ottawa, Potawatomi and Huron attacked a British fort, at Detroit. They held siege against the fort until October. The tribes attacked British forts throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi and Ohio Valleys. All of the interior forts were captured, except, Forts Pitt, Niagara and Detroit.
1764 – On the Fifth day of April, in 1764, The Sugar Act, Smugglers could be tried in Admiralty Courts, without the benefit of a jury.
1765 – On the Twenty-second day of March, in 1765, The Stamp Act, was tax on paper goods and legal documents.
1765 – On the Twenty-fourth day of March, in 1765, The Quartering Act, Meant that the Colonists must provide housing and food for British troops.
1765 – On the Twenty-ninth day of March, in 1765, The Virginia House of Burgesses passed the Virginia Resolves, which were seven resolutions, that challenge the legality of the Stamp Act.
1765 – On the Seventh through the Twenty-fifth day of October, in 1765, the Stamp Act Congress meets in Philadelphia, to discuss the developing crisis.
1766 – On the Twenty-fifth day of July, in 1766, the Pontiac and the Algonkian chiefs meet at Fort Ontario in New York, to sign a final peace treaty, which brought the Pontiac’s War to an end.