Church Records and How to Use Them

Church Records can be very useful. Different religions have different views on families and traditions. We hope this sections helps you in your quest for your family tree. These are some of the religions from around the world:

Anglican Church, in England, also known as the Episcopalian Church in the United States, and is a Christian Church. The Anglican Church began as the Church of England, when King Henry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church, in 1534. Originally, in 1641 New Hampshire was settled by Anglicans. At the time, New Hampshire was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. When the Colonies were British, the settlers of Georgia were expected to belong to the Anglican Church.

Apostolic Church is also, known as the New Apostolic Church and is a Christian Church.

Assembly of God group of Churches is one of the largest Pentecostal Protestant Christian denominations in the world. The Assemblies of God was founded in August of 1886, in Monroe County, Tennessee. The Assembly of God Church has its headquarters in Springfield, Greene County, Missouri.

Baptist Church is a Christian Church. In 1612, Thomas Helwys established a Baptist Church in London from the Smyth’s Church. The first Baptist Church of Charleston, South Carolina, was organized in 1682 founded by William Screven. A Baptist Church was founded in 1715 by Robert Norden, in Virginia. In North Carolina a Baptist Church was organized in 1727 in by Paul Palmer. In 1739, there were twelve Baptist Churches in in Rhode Island.

Born Again is a term used, first in Methodism and then moved to other religions in the Fundamentalist and Evangelist areas of Protestant Christianity.

Buddhism is an old religion. It is Dharmic in origin. Buddhism entered the United States during the Nineteenth Century, with the arrival of the first immigrants from East Asia. The first Buddhist temple was established in San Francisco in 1853 by Chinese Americans. During the late Nineteenth Century Buddhist missionaries from Japan, went to the United States. The Counties where Buddhism is practiced include: China, Japan, Korea, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnamese and others. Buddhism first came to North America through Chinese immigrants, who settled in the western parts of the United States, beginning in the 1840’s. as well as by North Americans and Europeans, who visited Asia and brought back with them Buddhist texts. In the latter part of the 1800’s, the influence of Buddhist thought began showing up in the literary works of Walt Whitman, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Catholic Church, also referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, which is led by the Pope, and is a Christian Church. Maryland was created as a state where Catholics were welcome, by Lord Baltimore. Catholicism was introduced to English colonies in 1634 with the founding of the Province of Maryland by Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, based on a charter granted to his father George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore. The first settlers were accompanied by two Jesuit missionaries traveling as gentlemen adventurers. The 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including Andrew White, and the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor. During the greater part of the Maryland colonial period, Jesuits continued to conduct Catholic schools clandestinely from their manor house in Newtowne St. Francis Xavier Church and Newtown Manor House Historic District. After Virginia established Anglicanism as mandatory in the colony, many Puritans migrated from Virginia to Maryland. The government gave them land for a settlement called Providence, which is now called Annapolis. In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government and set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism. In March of 1655, the 2nd Lord Baltimore sent an army under Governor William Stone to put down the revolt, Near Annapolis, his Roman Catholic army was decisively defeated by a Puritan army in what was to be known as the Battle of the Severn. The Puritan revolt lasted until 1658, when the Calvert family regained control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. The Abenaki, also spelled Abnaki, were Native Americans, converted by Jesuit missionaries from Quebec. They were the first Catholics to live in New Hampshire. At the time, in 1641, New Hampshire was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. The Abenaki, part of the Algonquian speaking people, also lived in Quebec in Canada, Maine and Vermont. Prior to 1772, no definite records are available regarding any regularly established Catholic church in the present State of Delaware. In 1730 Cornelius Hallahan, an Irish Catholic settled in Mill Creek Hundred, in New Castle Country, or County, on an estate called Cuba Rock by him. A place near the present location of Mount Cuba, in Delaware. The first Catholic services in the State of Delaware were most likely, held at the home of Cornelius Hallahan. The Apoquiniminck Mission, in the lower part of New Castle Country, or County, was established before 1750, by Jesuits from St. Xavier’s Mission in Cecil County, in Cecil County, Maryland. In January of 1772, Father Matthew Sittenperger, a Jesuit Known under the name of Manners, purchased a farm in Mill Creek Hundred, which was known as Coffee Run, and here a log chapel called St. Mary’s and a residence was erected. Father Sittensperger was succeeded by the Stephen Faure who, with other Frenchmen, was driven from St. Domingo by slave uprisings and settled at Wilmington. In 1785, Delaware became one of the four states, where Catholics were not under what is called civil disabilities.

Christian Reformed Church is a Protestant Church in the United States and Canada.

Christian Science Church is a Christian Church. The Christian Scientist Church was created by Mary Baker Eddy.

Church of the Brethren is a Christian Church.

Church of Christ, also known as the Congregational Church, is a Christian Church. The Congregationalist Church began in Colonial America as Puritans.

Church of God professes a reliance on the Bible, and is a Christian Church.

Church of Latter-Day Saints, also known as the Mormon Church, is a Christian Church. The Church of Latter Day Saint movement was founded in 1830, by Joseph Smith in Upstate New York.

Church of the Nazarene is a Christian Church.

Congregationalists were fleeing religious persecution, when they left England to go to the British colonies in America. Congregationalists were found in Massachusetts in 1647 and 1700. In 1664 Congregationalism appears to have been established in the New Haven colony, later to become the colony of Connecticut, and was supported by public taxation.  In 1739, there were six Congregational churches in Rhode Island. There were Congregational Communities in New Jersey. They were prominent in Newark, Elizabeth and on the North Shore of Monmouth County. In 1739, there were six Congregational Churches in the State of Rhode Island.

Disciples of Christ is a Christian Church.

Dutch Reformed Church is also, known as the Reformed Church, and is a Christian Church. The Colony of New Netherland was established in 1614. In 1667 the colony became New York, and New Amsterdam became New York City.

Episcopalian Church, in the United States, also known as the Anglican Church in England, and is a Christian Church. In 1739 there were five Episcopalian Churches in Rhode Island.

Evangelical refers to a tendency in diverse branches of conservative Christianity Protestantism, with an emphasis on evangelism.

Foursquare Gospel Church is a Christian Church.

Full Gospel Movement is a Protestant Christian movement focusing on the Holy Spirit.

Fundamentalist Christian Church is a Protestant Church in the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries.

Hinduism is a religion of Dharmic origin. Large groups of Hindus have immigrated from India and other Asian countries. Trade started between India and America in the late 1700’s. In 1784 a ship called the United States arrived in Pondicherry from Salem, Massachusetts. In the decades that followed Indian goods became available in Salem and Boston, Massachusetts and Providence, Rhode Island. Along with those ships came Indians and the Hindu Religion. New England writer Hannah Adams first published Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects, later issued as A View of Religions and A Dictionary of All Religions. It has a chapter describing the Hindoos, as best she could understand from the Boston countryside. The American Unitarians became interested in Hindu thought  through the work of the Bengali reformer Rammohun Roy, who lived from 1772 to 1833. Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj, which affirmed Hindu monotheism and rejected idolatry. The Brahmo Samaj with its universalist ideas attracted the attention of Unitarians in England and America.

Independent Christian Churches, is also known as the Churches of Christ, and are part of the Restoration Movement.

Islam- the Black members of the Islam faith were discouraged from practicing their faith on the plantations, in the new world. Many slaves kept their faith hidden. Black people were transported from Eastern Africa to the British colonies in America for the purpose of slavery, or free labor. Some, claim that there were Muslims, most notably a man named Istafan, who accompanied the Spanish as a guide to the New World in the early 16th century in their conquest of what would became Arizona and New Mexico.

When Columbus made his journey to the North American Continent, It is believed that he took with him , a book written by Portuguese Muslims, who had navigated their way to the New World in the Twelfth Century. What is clear is the make up of the first wave of Muslims in the British American Colonies, Muslims represented 10 to 15 percent of the African slaves. Maintaining their religion was difficult and many were forcibly converted to Christianity. Any effort to practice Islam, and keep the traditional clothing and names and practices had to be done in secret.

There was a large group of African Americans on the Georgia Coast, that managed to maintain their faith until the beginning of the Twentieth Century. Between 1878 and 1924, Muslim immigrants from the Middle East, particularly from Syria and Lebanon, arrived in large numbers, with many settling in Ohio, Michigan Iowa and the Dakotas.

Like most of the other immigrants, they were seeking greater economic opportunity than in their homeland and often worked as manual laborers. One of the first big employers of Muslims and Blacks was the Ford Company. Sometimes the conditions working in the factories, were very hot and uncomfortable. At the same time, the great migration of blacks to the North helped encourage the African American Islam revival and growth of the African American Muslim National Movement, that still exists today. The hope remains to restore the culture and faith, that almost destroyed during the years of slavery.

During the 1930’s and 1940’s, people from the Middle East began to establish communities and build mosques. African American Muslims had already built their own mosques. By 1952, there were more than one thousand mosques in North America. After years of exclusion of most Middle Eastern immigrants, the United States opened the door in 1952 to new groups of Muslims, who came places that include: Palestine, Iraq, Iran, Egypt. Then, in the 1960’s, the United States saw groups of Muslims coming from South Eastern Asia, Africa, Latin America and other Asian Counties.

Jainism is a religion of Dharmic origin.

Jehovah’s Witnesses Church is a Christian Church. Jehovah’s Witnesses originated with the religious movement known as Bible Students, which was founded in Pennsylvania, in the late 1870’s by Charles Taze Russell.

Judaism – This is some information about the Jewish faith in British colonial America. Also, Here are a few of the members of the Jewish faith, who settled in the British colonies in America:

Levy, Asser – Asser Levy was the first of a group of twenty-three Jewish people mentioned in the public record, in New Amsterdam, in 1654. Asser Levy may also, have been known as Asser Van Swellem. These Jewish people arrived as refugees from Brazil. Asser Levy was the butcher or kosher for this small community of Jewish people. He fought of Jewish rights in the Dutch colony and is well known for having secured the right of Jewish people to be admitted as burghers, and therefore to serve as guards on duty for the colony.

Barsimson, Jacob – Jacob Barimson left Holland on July Eighth, in 1654. He arrived aboard the ship, the Peartree, on August Twenty- second, at the Port of New Amsterdam. This, today is where Wall Street, is in Lower Manhattan. Jacob Barsimson was employed by the Dutch East India Company. He had fled the Portuguese settlements of the New World. The Portuguese had captured Dutch settlements and established Portuguese settlements, in their place.

Franco, Solomon – Solomon Franco came from Holland, and was to believed to have settled in the City of Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1649. Solomon Franco was an agent for the Dutch merchant Immanuel Perada. Solomon Franco, also delivered supplies to Edward Gibbins, who was a major general in the Massachusetts Militia. After a dispute over who should pay Franco, Gibbons or Perada, the Massachusetts General Court ruled on May 6, of 1649, that Franco was to be expelled from the Colony of Massachusetts. The court granted Franco six shillings per week out of the Massachusetts Treasury for ten weeks, for sustenance, until he could get his passage back to Holland. He could have gone to another colony, because we found no record of his return to Holland.

Legarde, Elias – Elias Legarde was a member of the Jewish Faith, who arrived at Jamestown, Virginia on the British ship, the Abigail, in 1621. Legarde may be spelled Legardo.

Pietersen, Solomon – Solomon Pietersen was a merchant from Amsterdam, who arrived in the American colonies in 1654. In 1656, Solomon Pietersen was known to have married a Christian. There are no records of a conversion. However, Solomon Pietersen’s daughter, Anna was baptized as a child.

The first group of Jewish People in the northern colonies disembarked in early September, in 1654, shortly after Jacob Barsimson. Barsimson is said to have met them at the Battery upon their arrival. This group was made up of twenty-three Portuguese Jews, from the Netherlands. They were four couples, two widows, and thirteen children. Like Barsimson, they had fled from a former Dutch settlement; the group had emigrated from Dutch Brazil after the settlement was conquered by the Portuguese. Fearing the Inquisition, the Jews left Recife. They originally docked in Spanish Jamaica and Spanish Cuba, but the Spanish did not allow them the stay there. Their ship, the Saint Catherine, went to New Amsterdam instead, settling  against the wishes of local merchants and the local Dutch Reformed Church. Colonial governor Peter Stuyvesant, upon complaint from these groups, attempted to have the Jews expelled. He wrote a letter to the directors of the Dutch West India Company, dated September 22, 1654:

The Jews who have arrived would nearly all like to remain here, but learning that they, with their customary usury and deceitful trading with Christians, were very repugnant to the inferior magistrates, as also to the people having the most affection for you; we have, for the benefit of this weak and newly developing place and the land in general, deemed it useful to require them in a friendly way to depart, praying also most seriously in this connection, for ourselves as also for general  community of your worships, that the deceitful race-such hateful enemies and blasphemers of the name of Christ-be not allowed to further infect and trouble this new colony to the detraction of your worships and the dissatisfaction of your worships’ most affectionate subjects.

However, among the directors of the Dutch West India Company were several influential Jews, who interceded on the refugees’ behalf. Company officials rebuffed Stuyvesant and ordered him in a letter dated April 26, 1655, to let the Jews remain in New Amsterdam, “provided the poor among them shall not become a burden to company or to community, but be supported by their own nation”:

We would have liked to effectuate and fulfill your wishes and request that the territories should no more be allowed to be infected by people of the Jewish nation, for we foresee the same difficulties which you fear, but after having further weighed and considered the matter, we observe that this would be somewhat unreasonable and unfair, especially because of the considerable loss sustained by this nation, with others, in the taking of Brazil as also, because of the large amount of capital which they still have invested in the shares of this company. Therefore after many deliberations we have finally decided and resolved to apostille, upon a certain petition presented by said Portuguese Jews that these people may travel and trade to and in New Netherland and live and remain there, provided the poor among them shall not become a burden to the company or to the community, but be supported by their own nation. You will now govern yourself accordingly.

Upon the capture of the colony by the British in 1664, the rights enjoyed by the Jews were not interfered with, and for twenty years appear to have live much as before the British occupation, through with slight increase in their numbers. Jews had previously been barred from settling in English colonies, as they had been banned from all English areas of land for four hundred years. Oliver Cromwell, was the British Protector, from 1649 through 1660. with his son, Richard lifted this prohibition, and founding of the first major Jewish settlement soon followed in Newport, Rhode Island. In 1672, Rabba Couty achieved prominence by his appeal to the King’s Council in England from a decree passed against him by the courts of Jamaica, because one of his ships was seized and declared forfeited. His appeal was successful and established the rights of Jews as British Subjects. This incident appears to be the first case in which a colonial grant of naturalization was considered valid.

In 1685, the application of Saul Brown to trade on the retail level was denied, as was that of the Jews for the liberty to exercise their religion publicly. That they did so  privately, in some definite place of worship would appear from the fact that a map of New York, dated 1695, shows the location of a synagogue on Beaver Street, also that Saul Brown was the minister, and that the congregation included twenty families. Five years later, the site of the synagogue was so well known, that in a conveyance of property the premises were referred to as a landmark. In 1710, the minister of the congregation, Abraham De Lucena, was granted exemption from civil and military service by reason of his ministerial functions, and reference is made to the enjoyment of the same privileges by his predecessors. The minutes of the Congregation Shearith Israel of New York begin in 1729, when it was located in Mill Street, and refer to records dating back as far as 1706. This congregation established on Mill Street, in 1730. on a lot purchased two years before, the first synagogue in the future United States.

It would then, appear that the religious rights of the early Jewish settlers had been secured in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and that they enjoyed many political rights. An act passed by the General Assembly of New York on November 15, 1727, provided that when the oath of abjuration was taken by any British subject professing the Jewish religion, the words “upon the true faith of a Christian” would be omitted. Three days later, and act was passed naturalizing Daniel Nunes Da Costa. The bitter political controversy of 1737 resulted in the decision by the General Assembly that Jews should not be allowed to vote for members of that body.

In 1740 Parliament passed the Plantation Act specifically permitting the Jews to be naturalized in the colonies. Previous to this date, however, the New York Colonial Assembly had passed numerous special acts of naturalization, some of which were applicable to individuals only; others more general in character, under which Jews could be naturalized without taking oath “upon the true faith of a Christian,” were also put upon the statute-book. Between this time and the Revolutionary War the Jewish community in the New York colony increased by slow stages, the principal immigrants coming from Spain, Portugal, and the West Indies.

During the French and Indian War, Jacob Franks was the royal agent, in association with a British syndicate, for provisioning the British forces in America; his dealings with the crown during this period exceeded 750,000 pounds in British money.

Though most of the earlier immigrants settled in New York City, a few settled beyond its limits, some even as far as the confines of what now constitutes the state of Pennsylvania. In 1661, when Albany was but a trading post, Asser Levy, owned real estate there, but between that date and the early years of the nineteenth century there are no records of any settlers in that town. They were not there in sufficient numbers to form a congregation until 1838, and they had no rabbi until 1846.

In other parts of New England there were probably occasional settlers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but the intolerance of the Puritans rendered impossible the establishment of any religious communities. An interesting personality is that of Judah Monis, who became a convert to Christianity and filled the chair of Hebrew in Harvard College from 1722 until his death in 1764.

Mention is found of a Jewish person in Connecticut on November 9, 1659, and of another  in 1670. The first Jewish family to settle in New Haven came in 1772, though a few individuals, who had become converts to Christianity dwelt there a few years before. The first congregation was established about 1840, the congregants being members of about twenty Bavarian families. From that date on the community increased by slow stages. There were Jewish settlements also in Bridgeport, Ansonia, Derby, Waterbury, New London and Hartford. The first congregation in Hartford was established in 1843. Since 1891 a number of Jewish farmers have been settled in various parts of the state.

The earliest mention of a Jew in Massachusetts bears the date May 3, 1649, and there are references to Jews among the inhabitants of Boston on 1695 and 1702; but they can be regarded only as stragglers, as no settlers made their homes in Massachusetts until the American Revolution drove the Jewish people from Newport. In 1777 Arron Lopez and Jacob Rivera with fifty-nine others, went from Newport to Leicester, and settled there; but this settlement did not survive the end of the war. A number of Jews including the Hays family, settled at Boston before 1800. Of those people, Moses Michael Hays was the most important. In 1830 a number of Algerian Jews went to Boston, but they soon disappeared. the history of the present community begins in 1840, when the first congregation begins with 1840, when the first congregation was established.

The Jewish immigrants of Vermont and New Hampshire were never very numerous, though there are congregations in Burlington, Vermont and in Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Portsmouth and Dover, New Hampshire. Little of importance is known of the about the life of the Jewish people in New England. There numbers increased slowly until after the beginning of the Russian emigration of 1882. That is when, the overflow from New York as well as the emigration through Canada began to stream into New England.

The opening of the West and the resulting unprofitable nature of farming in New England, drew away from this part of the United States many thrifty farmers, who abandoned their unfruitful fields, for the more attractive opportunities in the western states. Of interest, in connection with this shifting of population, is the fact that many of these abandoned farms, especially in Connecticut, have been taken by Russian Jews, who principally as dairy farmers, have added a new and useful element to the agricultural community.

It would seen that only a few Jewish people found their way to Maryland during the first half of the Seventeenth century, and that the first settlers of this colony came as individuals, and not in large numbers, at the same time, as was the case in New York, Newport, Savannah and Charleston. To judge by the names alone it would seem that a few Jews were residents in Maryland from the earliest days of the colony. The most prominent figure, who was unquestionable a Jew was a Dr. Jacob Lumbrozo, who had arrived January 24, 1656, and who in 1658, was tried for blasphemy, but was released by reason of the general amnesty granted in honor of the accession of Richard Cromwell, on March 3, 1658. Letters of denization were issued to Lumbrozo on September 10, 1663. Besides practicing medicine, he also owned a plantation, engaged in trade with the Indians, and had active intercourse with London merchants. He was one of the earliest medical practitioners in the colony, and his career casts much light upon the history and nature of religious tolerance in Maryland. By the strength of his personality, he was able to discard nearly all the laws which would have rendered his residence in the colony impossible, and he seems to have observed his faith even though this, under the laws, was forbidden. The unfavorable environment rendered the admittance of Jews to Maryland difficult, and until the Constitution of 1776 established the religious rights of all, few Jews settled in the colony.

It is on record, that Jewish people from New Amsterdam traded along the Delaware River as early as 1655. There were probably some settlers in the southeastern portion of the territory, of which William Penn took possession in 1681. A very considerable number of early Pennsylvania colonist were German Jews. The first residents of Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who was living there in 1703. Another early pioneer and one of considerable prominence was Isaac Miranda. He was the first to settle at Lancaster, which was also called Shaefferstown at one time. Where there was an early Jewish immigration. Isaac Miranda became a convert to Christianity and held several state offices. A number of Jewish people settled in Philadelphia in the first half of the Eighteenth century, and became prominent in life of the city. Among those were: David franks, Joseph Marks and Sampson Levy. The Non Importation Resolutions of 1765 contained the signatures of eight Jewish People, an indication of the importance of the Jewish community at that time. As early as 1747 a number of people held religious services in a small house in Sterling Alley, and Cherry Alley, which was between Third and Fourth Streets. They were mostly German and Polish Jews; and their differences as to the liturgy to be followed prevented, at the time, formation of any regular congregation. Attempts, indeed, were made in 1761 and 1773 to form one, but none was established until the influx of Jews from New York during the American Revolution, with the arrival of Gershom Mendes Seixas, gave the community sufficient strength to carry out this cherished object. A lot was purchased and a synagogue erected, the dedication occurring in September of 1782. A number of Philadelphia Jews served in the army of the Revolution; and the inestimable services rendered by Haym Sallomon to Robert Morris in the finances of the Revolution make his name stand out as the most prominent character in American Jewish community.

Jewish people had lived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, since at least 1730, before the town and county were organized. Joseph Simon was the best known of the first arrivals. Meyer Hart and Michael Hart were among the earlier settlers at Easton, where they arrived previous to the Revolutionary War. A synagogue was established there in 1839. Shaefferstown had a few Jewish settlers at an early date, and synagogue and cemetery in 1732. For a considerable number of years preceding the Revolutionary War a number of Jews of Pennsylvania were engaged in the exploitation and sale of Western Pennsylvania lands. Among the more prominent of those were Jacob and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Joseph Simon and Levy Andrew Levy.

The Jewish settlement in Georgia dates almost from the very foundation of the colony; and the early history of Georgia is practically the history of the growth and development of Savannah, Jewish life centering in that city. It would appear that a movement was set on foot in London to settle some Jewish people in the colony even before James Oglethorpe, in June, 1733, led his first band of followers to the point, which soon after became the city of Savannah. The second vessel which reached the colony from England, on July 11, 1733, had among its passengers no less than forty Jewish emigrants. Though their arrival was unexpected, the liberal minded governor welcomed them gladly, notwithstanding that he was aware that the trustees of the colony in England had expressed some opposition to permitting Jewish people to settle there. Those first settlers were all of Spanish, Portuguese and Prussian extraction, though within a year of their arrival others, liberal treatment from James Oglethorpe, and were the progenitors of one of the most communities of Jewish people, in the American colony of Georgia. Many of their descendants are still living in various parts of the country. The first white male child, born in the Colony was a Jewish baby, named Philip Minis or Uri on July 11, 1734.

Among the first immigrants, was Dr. Nunis, who was made welcome, because of his medical knowledge, and because he, with a number of others, brought sufficient wealth to the colony to enable the immigrants to take up large tracts of land. A congregation was organized as early as 1734. Three years after, Abraham de Lyon, who had been a vineron in Portugal, introduced the culture of grapes. The cultivation and manufacture of silk and pursuit of agriculture and of commerce, were the chief occupations of those early settlers.  A dispute with the trustees of the colony respecting the introduction of slaves caused an extensive emigration to South Carolina in 1741, and resulted in the dissolution of the congregation. But in 1751 a number of Jewish people returned to Georgia, and in the same year the trustees sent over Joseph Ottolenghi to superintend the somewhat extensive silk industry in the colony. Joseph Ottolenghi soon attained soon prominence in the political life of his associates, and was elected a member of the Assembly in 1761 and in  succeeding years. There seems to have been little, if any distinction made socially between the Jewish people and other settlers, and educational and philanthropic institutions seem to have been supported by all alike.

The liberal charter which John Locke drew up in 1669 for the governance of the Carolinas should have operated to attract Jewish people there at an early date, since Jewish people heathen and dissenters were by the terms of Locke’s charter granted full liberty of conscience. Though political changes modified Locke’s original plan considerably, the spirit of tolerance was always retained. Nevertheless, no Jewish people in any number appear to have come to South Carolina until the exodus from Georgia from 1740 to 1771, already referred to. However, one Simon Valentine, one of four Jewish people, who applied for citizenship in 1697, became the first documented Jewish landowner, which entitled him to vote. A few others followed him, for in 1703 a protest was raised against  Jew strangers voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

In 1748, some prominent London Jewish people set on foot, a scheme for the acquisition of a tract of 200,000 or 80,937 ha or 809 km2 of land in South Carolina. Nothing came of that, however, though on November 27, 1755, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres or 40,469 ha or 405 km2 of land near Fort Ninety-six for 2,000 pounds in British money. Twenty years later, Joseph Salvador sold 60,000 acres or 24,281 ha or 243 km2 of land for 3,000 pounds in British money to thirteen London Sephardic Jewish people. This land was known as the the Jew’s lands. Another of the Salvadors was Francis Salvador, the nephew of Joseph, purchased extensive tracts of land in the vicinity in 1773 to 1774. Moses Lindo, likewise a London Jewish person, who arrived in 1756, became actively engaged in indigo manufacture, spending large sums in its development, making this one of the principal industries of the state.

During the American Revolution, Jewish people, in South Carolina, were found on both sides of the conflict. the most eminent of the revolutionaries was Francis Salvador, who was elected a member of the First and the Second Provincial Congress, which met in 1775 and through 1776. It was the most important political office held by any Jewish man during the Revolution. Two-thirds of the company of militia commanded by Richard Lushington was made up of Jewish people from Charleston, South Carolina.

After the fall of Charleston, in 1780, the Majority of Jewish people left the city, however, most of the Jews returned after the war was over. The Sephardic Jewish people established a congregation in 1750, and Jews of German descent established another congregation shortly after the first. In 1791, when the Sephardic congregation was incorporated, the total number of Jewish people in Charleston was in excess of four hundred.

To judge by names alone, it would appear that a Jewish people traveled to Virginia as early as 1624. A small number seem also, to have been there before the end of the Seventeenth Century, but for nearly one hundred years not a trace of a Jewish settlement was found. Very few Jewish soldiers served in Virginia regiments under Washington, in his expedition across the Allegheny Mountains in 1754. It is more likely that the Jewish people in Virginia came from the Baltimore area of Maryland and other places in the colonies. By 1758 Richmond had a Jewish community of about a dozen families of Spanish and Portuguese decent, which organized a Sephardic congregation in 1791. That congregation remained in existence until 1898.

There were some Jewish people, who settled near the Holston River, in Tennessee in 1778. They were traders, as an occupation, and were called stragglers. They did not stay there and there was no permanent settlement established, by Jewish people in the area.

Of the remaining states in the south and east of the Mississippi River. The principal Jewish settlements were created in Alabama and Mississippi. One of the Jewish people, who made his way to the territory, which is now Alabama during the early part of the Eighteenth Century.One prominent name was Pallachio, who was an important citizen in 1776.

It is likely that that there were very few Jewish people in the Natchez district of Mississippi, before the end of the Eighteenth Century. There was a Jewish congregation organized in 1843, in Natchez. This congregation thrived, due to the settlement of the Jewish people.

Before and during the American Revolution the Jewish people had representatives of their people on both sides of the controversy. The majority were on the colonial side. On the Non Importation Agreement of 1769 the names of more that five Jewish people. With the beginning of the American Revolution in the congregation in New York City disappears. With the British occupancy of the New York City, the majority of the congregation, headed by Gershom Mendes Seixas, took all their belongings from the synagogue and moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. That was where they established the first regular congregation, known as the Mickve’ Israel, in 1782. A small number of Jewish people remained in New York and occasionally held services in the synagogue. Most of those people, who left for Philadelphia returned to New York after the end of the war. Haym Solomon, which can also be spelled Salomon. He was born in 1740, in Prussia and died in 1785, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Haym Solomon was a primary financier of the American side during the American War for Independence against the British.

Though the Jewish people participated prominently in the events leading up to the American Revolution, it would appear that even in the midst of political discussions and difficulties, they were still able to found another congregation, in 1774. A good many of the  Jewish people were patriots or on the side of the colonists before and during the War for American Independence. On the other hand, there were a number of Jewish people, who were on the other side or the British side. The British were also called Tories, Brits, Royalists, and Loyalists. American who fought for the British were known as Loyalists, for the most part. Some of those Jewish people, who fought or gave aid and comfort to the British were: Philip Jacob Cohen, Philip Minis, Levi Sheftall, Mordecai Sheftall and Sheftall Sheftall.

Lutheran Church, also referred to as Lutheranism, and is a Christian Church.

Mennonite Church is a Christian Church.

Methodist or Wesleyan, Example the United Methodist Church, and is a Christian Church.

Moravian Church

Mormon Church, also known as the Church of Latter-Day Saints and is a Christian Church.

Muslim- the Black Muslims, who were slaves were discouraged from practicing their faith on the plantations, in the new world. Many slaves kept their faith hidden. Black people were transported, from Eastern Africa to the British colonies in America for the purpose of the slavery.

Pentecostal Church is a Christian Church. Pentecostalism found its beginning in the Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, California started by Charles Parham.

Presbyterian Church is a Christian Church and comes from the principles of John Calvin in France. In Europe, referred to as Calvinism or Calvinists. These principles were established further in Scotland by John Knox, as part of the reformed tradition within the Protestant movement with origins in the British Isles, particularly Scotland.

In 1739, there were six Presbyterian Churches in Rhode Island. New Jersey was founded as a proprietary colony be grant a grant to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. These two men attracted settlers, not only from England, but from Scotland and New England. Settlers also, came from Long Island and Connecticut. These planters were mostly Calvinists from the Presbyterian communities and occupied the land in Newark, Elizabeth and upon the north shore of Monmouth County. The Calvinists brought with them into East Jersey their different views of religion and civil matters.

In 1683 Scottish and Irish or Scotch Irish Presbyterians began settling in South Carolina. There were Scotch Irish Presbyterians though out South Carolina. The center of the State was highly Scottish and Presbyterian. Especially around Winnsboro, now in Fairfield County and Columbia, which is now in Richland County, South Carolina.

Puritans were fleeing persecution by the Church of England and Europe, when they crossed the Atlantic to the New World. Puritans arrived went to Massachusetts in 1620. One of the first Puritan and English settlements from the Plymouth Colony was on the Connecticut River at Windsor, 1633. They were traders by occupation.  Later, the Puritans were able to spread out to Maryland and Virginia.

Rastafarianism began in the United States by migrating from Jamaica. They were led by Marcus Garvey.

Reformed Church is also, known as the Dutch Reformed Church is a Christian Church.

Protestant Churches include: Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, Episcopal Church, and they are Christian Churches.

Quaker are also, known as the Religious Society of Friends, and is an Alternative Christian Church. The Religious Society of Friends was founded in England by George Fox in the 17 hundreds. George Fox was born in July of 1624, in Leicestershire, England. Many Quakers settled in Pennsylvania.

Roman Catholic Church, also referred to as the Catholic Church, which is led by the Pope, and is a Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church was established because of Jesus Christ, His life and teachings. He was born in Bethlehem, Judah, about 4 BC.

Separatists were also known as Independent. They were English Protestants of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, who wanted to separate from the Church of England. These Protestants formed independent churches, wherever they settled. Separatists were the most influential politically in England during the time of the Commonwealth, from 1649 to 1660, under Oliver Cromwell, the lord protector, who was also, a Separatist. This group, over time became the religious majority, of England. When coming to the British Colonies in America, the Separatists move to become the Congregationalists, and some joined the Presbyterians.

The Separatist movement was initially illegal in England, and many of their members were persecuted by the England and its church. Sometimes labeled as traitors, many Separatists left England, for a more tolerant home in the British Colonies in America. Some of their group left from Holland in 1620. They landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts. Together with the Puritans, they settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1630. They joined and became the Congregationalist Church, in what is now the United States of America.

Seventh-Day Adventist Church is a Christian Church, and has its roots in the Millerite movement, headed Preacher Thomas M. Preble, in the 1830’s and 1840’s. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church was formally founded in 1863, on May Twenty-first, in Battle Creek, Michigan. Some of the founding members were Hiram Edson, James Sringer White, along with his wife Ellen G. White, Joseph Bates and J. N.

Sikhism is a religion originating from South Asia, which was introduced into the United States, when around the turn of the Twentieth Century, Sikhs started emigrating to the United States, to work on farms in California.

Southern Baptist Church is a Christian Church. The Southern Baptist Convention was organized During May Eighth to the Twelfth of 1845, in Augusta, Georgia. They elected William Bullein Johnson as the convention’s new president. He lived from 1782 to 1862.

Unitarian Universalism

United Church of Christ, also known as the Congregational Church, and is a Christian Church. The headquarters of the United Church of Christ is in Cleveland, Ohio.